Medical Therapy


Drug Treatment

Medications for Chronic Heart Failure

1.   Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and vasodilators

2.   β-adrenoreceptor antagonists and heart failure

3.   Aldosterone antagonists

4.   Angiotensin receptor blockers

5.   Therapeutic control of fluid balance

6.   Digoxin

7.   Antithrombotic agents

Medications for acute heart failure

1.   Inotropes, pressors and vasodilators

Device Therapy for Heart Failure

Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators

Cardiac resynchronization therapy


Surgical Therapy for Heart Failure

Heart transplantation

Revascularization and remodelling surgery

Ventricular assist devices

Mitral valve surgery in heart failure